Normalizing (atmosphere and non-atmosphere)
is heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above
the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature
substantially below the transformation range.
Annealing is a generic term denoting a treatment
consisting of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature
followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily
to soften metallic materials, but also to simultaneously
desired changes in other properties or in microstructure.
The purpose is, but not restricted to, improvement of machinability,
facilitation of cold work, improvement of mechanical or
electrical properties, and/or increase in stability of
Normalizing/Annealing Processes: Batch
Stress relieving is heating to a suitable
temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses,
and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development
of new residual stresses.
Stress Relieving Processes: Batch (up to 8' x 8' x7') and continuous